Mesenchymal Stem Cell Insights: Prospects in Cardiovascular Therapy

Author:

Chou Shiu-Huey1,Lin Shinn-Zong2,Kuo Wei-Wen3,Pai Peiying4,Lin Jing-Ying5,Lai Chao-Hung6,Kuo Chia-Hua7,Lin Kuan-Ho89,Tsai Fuu-Jen10,Huang Chih-Yang101112

Affiliation:

1. Department of Life Science, Fu-Jen Catholic University, Xinzhuang District, New Taipei City, Taiwan

2. Graduate Institute of Immunology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan

3. Department of Biological Science and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan

4. Division of Cardiology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

5. Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan

6. Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Armed Force Taichung General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

7. Department of Sports Sciences, University of Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan

8. Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan

9. Emergency Department, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

10. School of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan

11. Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan

12. Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan

Abstract

Ischemic heart damage usually triggers cardiomyopathological remodeling and fibrosis, thus promoting the development of heart functional failure. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a heterogeneous group of cells in culture, with multipotent and hypoimmunogenic characters to aid tissue repair and avoid immune responses, respectively. Numerous experimental findings have proven the feasibility, safety, and efficiency of MSC therapy for cardiac regeneration. Despite that the exact mechanism remains unclear, the therapeutic ability of MSCs to treat ischemia heart diseases has been tested in phase I/II clinical trials. Based on encouraging preliminary findings, MSCs might become a potentially efficacious tool in the therapeutic options available to treat ischemic and nonischemic cardiovascular disorders. The molecular mechanism behind the efficacy of MSCs on promoting engraftment and accelerating the speed of heart functional recovery is still waiting for clarification. It is hypothesized that cardiomyocyte regeneration, paracrine mechanisms for cardiac repair, optimization of the niche for cell survival, and cardiac remodeling by inflammatory control are involved in the interaction between MSCs and the damaged myocardial environment. This review focuses on recent experimental and clinical findings related to cellular cardiomyoplasticity. We focus on MSCs, highlighting their roles in cardiac tissue repair, transdifferentiation, the MSC niche in myocardial tissues, discuss their therapeutic efficacy that has been tested for cardiac therapy, and the current bottleneck of MSC-based cardiac therapies.

Publisher

SAGE Publications

Subject

Transplantation,Cell Biology,Biomedical Engineering

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