Stem Cell Therapy for Corneal Regeneration Medicine and Contemporary Nanomedicine for Corneal Disorders

Author:

Hsu Chih-Chien12,Peng Chi-Hsien23,Hung Kuo-Hsuan245,Lee Yi-Yen26,Lin Tai-Chi12,Jang Shih-Fan67,Liu Jorn-Hon8,Chen Yan-Ting2910,Woung Lin-Chung511,Wang Chien-Ying567,Tsa Ching-Yao511,Chiou Shih-Hwa1567,Chen Shih-Jen15,Chang Yuh-Lih567

Affiliation:

1. Department of Ophthalmology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC

2. Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC

3. Department of Ophthalmology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital and Fu-Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC

4. Department of Ophthalmology, National Yang-Ming University Hospital, Yilan, Taiwan, ROC

5. School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC

6. Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC

7. Institute of Pharmacology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC

8. Department of Ophthalmology, Cheng-Hsin Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC

9. Department of Ophthalmology, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan, ROC

10. Department of Optometrics, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Changhua, Taiwan, ROC

11. Department of Ophthalmology, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC

Abstract

The ocular surface is the outermost part of the visual system that faces many extrinsic or intrinsic threats, such as chemical burn, infectious pathogens, thermal injury, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, ocular pemphegoid, and other autoimmune diseases. The cornea plays an important role in conducting light into the eyes and protecting intraocular structures. Several ocular surface diseases will lead to the neovascularization or conjunctivalization of corneal epithelium, leaving opacified optical media. It is believed that some corneal limbal cells may present stem cell-like properties and are capable of regenerating corneal epithelium. Therefore, cultivation of limbal cells and reconstruction of the ocular surface with these limbal cell grafts have attracted tremendous interest in the past few years. Currently, stem cells are found to potentiate regenerative medicine by their capability of differentiation into multiple lineage cells. Among these, the most common cell sources for clinical use are embryonic, adult, and induced stem cells. Different stem cells have varied specific advantages and limitations for in vivo and in vitro expansion. Other than ocular surface diseases, culture and transplantation of corneal endothelial cells is another major issue for corneal decompensation and awaits further studies to find out comprehensive solutions dealing with nonregenerative corneal endothelium. Recently, studies of in vitro endothelium culture and ρ-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor have gained encouraging results. Some clinical trials have already been finished and achieved remarkable vision recovery. Finally, nanotechnology has shown great improvement in ocular drug delivery systems during the past two decades. Strategies to reconstruct the ocular surface could combine with nanoparticles to facilitate wound healing, drug delivery, and even neovascularization inhibition. In this review article, we summarized the major advances of corneal limbal stem cells, limbal stem cell deficiency, corneal endothelial cell culture/transplantation, and application of nanotechnology on ocular surface reconstruction. We also illustrated potential applications of current knowledge for the future treatment of ocular surface diseases.

Publisher

SAGE Publications

Subject

Transplantation,Cell Biology,Biomedical Engineering

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