Traditional and New Influenza Vaccines


Wong Sook-San1,Webby Richard J.1


1. Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA


SUMMARY The challenges in successful vaccination against influenza using conventional approaches lie in their variable efficacy in different age populations, the antigenic variability of the circulating virus, and the production and manufacturing limitations to ensure safe, timely, and adequate supply of vaccine. The conventional influenza vaccine platform is based on stimulating immunity against the major neutralizing antibody target, hemagglutinin (HA), by virus attenuation or inactivation. Improvements to this conventional system have focused primarily on improving production and immunogenicity. Cell culture, reverse genetics, and baculovirus expression technology allow for safe and scalable production, while adjuvants, dose variation, and alternate routes of delivery aim to improve vaccine immunogenicity. Fundamentally different approaches that are currently under development hope to signal new generations of influenza vaccines. Such approaches target nonvariable regions of antigenic proteins, with the idea of stimulating cross-protective antibodies and thus creating a “universal” influenza vaccine. While such approaches have obvious benefits, there are many hurdles yet to clear. Here, we discuss the process and challenges of the current influenza vaccine platform as well as new approaches that are being investigated based on the same antigenic target and newer technologies based on different antigenic targets.


American Society for Microbiology


Infectious Diseases,Microbiology (medical),Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health,General Immunology and Microbiology,Epidemiology

Reference197 articles.

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2010. Estimates of deaths associated with seasonal influenza—United States, 1976-2007. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 59:1057–1062.

2. Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations in the United States

3. Global burden of respiratory infections due to seasonal influenza in young children: a systematic review and meta-analysis;Nair H;Lancet,2011

4. Immunosenescence and challenges of vaccination against influenza in the aging population;Reber AJ;Aging Dis.,2012

5. 1918 Influenza: the Mother of All Pandemics







Copyright © 2019-2023 北京同舟云网络信息技术有限公司
京公网安备11010802033243号  京ICP备18003416号-3