The Post-Translational Modification Networking in WNK-Centric Hypertension Regulation and Electrolyte Homeostasis

Author:

Lin Shiuan-Chen,Ma Chun,Chang Kao-Jung,Cheong Han-Ping,Lee Ming-Cheng,Lan Yuan-Tzu,Wang Chien-Ying,Chiou Shih-Hwa,Huo Teh-IaORCID,Hsu Tsui-Kang,Tsai Ping-HsingORCID,Yang Yi-Ping

Abstract

The with-no-lysine (WNK) kinase family, comprising four serine-threonine protein kinases (WNK1-4), were first linked to hypertension due to their mutations in association with pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII). WNK kinases regulate crucial blood pressure regulators, SPAK/OSR1, to mediate the post-translational modifications (PTMs) of their downstream ion channel substrates, such as sodium chloride co-transporter (NCC), epithelial sodium chloride (ENaC), renal outer medullary potassium channel (ROMK), and Na/K/2Cl co-transporters (NKCCs). In this review, we summarize the molecular pathways dysregulating the WNKs and their downstream target renal ion transporters. We summarize each of the genetic variants of WNK kinases and the small molecule inhibitors that have been discovered to regulate blood pressure via WNK-triggered PTM cascades.

Publisher

MDPI AG

Subject

General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology,Medicine (miscellaneous)

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