Identifying subgroups of attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder from the psychopathological and neuropsychological profiles


Zhang Shan‐hong1,Yang Tian‐xiao23ORCID,Wu Zhao‐min1,Wang Yu‐feng4,Lui Simon S. Y.5,Yang Bin‐rang1ORCID,Chan Raymond C. K.23ORCID


1. Shenzhen Children's Hospital Shenzhen China

2. Neuropsychology and Applied Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing China

3. Department of Psychology University of Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing China

4. Peking University Sixth Hospital/Institute of Mental Health, National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders (Peking University Sixth Hospital) Beijing China

5. Department of Psychiatry, School of Clinical Medicine The University of Hong Kong Hong Kong China


AbstractThe Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) advocates the dimensional approach in characterizing mental disorders. We followed RDoC to characterize children with ADHD using profiling based on the cognitive and psychopathological domains. We aimed to identify and validate ADHD subtypes with different clinical characteristics and functional impairments. We recruited 362 drug‐naïve children with ADHD and 103 typically developing controls. The cluster analysis was used to identify subgroups based on the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The subgroups' clinical characteristics and functional impairments were assessed using the WEISS Functional Impairment Rating Scale‐Parent Report (WFIRS‐P) and the Conners Parent Symptom Questionnaire (PSQ). The cluster analysis yielded four subgroups: (1) ADHD with severe impairment in psychopathology and executive functions (EF), (2) ADHD with mild executive dysfunctions and normal‐level psychopathology, (3) ADHD with severe externalizing problems and (4) ADHD with severe executive dysfunctions. These subgroups showed different clinical characteristics and degrees of functional impairment. The EF impairment group displayed more serious learning problems and worse life skills than the externalizing group. The two groups with externalizing problems (i.e. the severe impairment group and the externalizing group) both exhibited higher rates of the combined subtype of ADHD and higher rates of comorbid ODD. Different subtypes of ADHD displayed different profiles of internalizing and externalizing problems and levels of executive dysfunctions. In particular, the subtype with severe impairment in EF exhibited more learning problems and worse life skills, suggesting EF is a critical target for intervention in children with ADHD.


National Natural Science Foundation of China

Sanming Project of Medicine in Shenzhen




Behavioral Neuroscience,Cognitive Neuroscience,Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology

Cited by 1 articles. 订阅此论文施引文献 订阅此论文施引文献,注册后可以免费订阅5篇论文的施引文献,订阅后可以查看论文全部施引文献







Copyright © 2019-2024 北京同舟云网络信息技术有限公司
京公网安备11010802033243号  京ICP备18003416号-3