The impact of pre‐existing influenza antibodies and inflammatory status on the influenza vaccine responses in older adults


Kang Min12ORCID,Lin Fangmei34,Jiang Zhanpeng34,Tan Xiaohua2,Lin Xia34,Liang Zaolan345,Xiao Cheng345,Xia Yonghe6,Guan Wenda47,Yang Zifeng47,Yu Guangchuang8,Zanin Mark910ORCID,Tang Shixing1ORCID,Wong Sook‐San59ORCID


1. School of Public Health Southern Medical University Guangzhou P. R. China

2. Guangdong Center for Disease Control and Prevention Guangzhou P. R. China

3. Guangzhou Medical University, Xinzao Guangzhou P. R. China

4. State Key Laboratory for Respiratory Diseases and National Clinical Research Centre for Respiratory Disease Guangzhou P.R. China

5. HKU‐Pasteur Research Pole, School of Public Health, LKS Faculty of Medicine The University of Hong Kong Hong Kong China

6. Zhongshan Yiyan Bio‐Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd Zhongshan P. R. China

7. Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, National Center for Respiratory Medicine Guangzhou P.R. China

8. Department of Bioinformatics, School of Basic Medical Sciences Southern Medical University Guangzhou P. R. China

9. School of Public Health, LKS Faculty of Medicine The University of Hong Kong Hong Kong China

10. Centre for Immunology & Infection Shatin Hong Kong


AbstractAge‐associated immune changes and pre‐existing influenza immunity are hypothesized to reduce influenza vaccine effectiveness in older adults, although the contribution of each factor is unknown. Here, we constructed influenza‐specific IgG landscapes and determined baseline concentrations of cytokines typically associated with chronic inflammation in older adults (TNF‐α, IL‐10, IL‐6, and IFN‐γ) in 30 high and 29 low influenza vaccine responders (HR and LR, respectively). In a background of high H3 antibody titers, vaccine‐specific H3, but not H1, antibody titers were boosted in LRs to titers comparable to HRs. Pre‐vaccination concentrations of IL‐10 were higher in LRs compared with HRs and inversely correlated with titers of pre‐existing influenza antibodies. Baseline TNF‐α concentrations were positively correlated with fold‐increases in antibody titers in HRs. Our findings indicate that baseline inflammatory status is an important determinant for generating post‐vaccination hemagglutinin‐inhibition antibodies in older adults, and IgG responses can be boosted in the context of high pre‐existing immunity.


Research Grants Council, University Grants Committee




Infectious Diseases,Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health,Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine,Epidemiology







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