Current developments and therapeutic potentials of exosomes from induced pluripotent stem cells-derived mesenchymal stem cells


Aldoghachi Ahmed Faris1,Loh Jit-Kai12,Wang Mong-Lien23,Yang Yi-Ping2,Chien Chian-Shiu23,Teh Hui Xin1,Omar Alfaqih Hussain4,Cheong Soon-Keng15,Yeap Swee Keong6,Ho Wan Yong7,Ong Alan Han-Kiat1


1. Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Cheras, Malaysia

2. Institute of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC

3. Department of Medical Research, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC

4. Biomedicine Programme, School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia

5. National Cancer Council (MAKNA), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

6. Marine Biotechnology, China-ASEAN College of Marine Sciences, Xiamen University Malaysia Campus, Jalan Sunsuria, Bandar Sunsuria, Sepang, Selangor, Malaysia

7. Faculty of Sciences and Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Semenyih, Malaysia


Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells derived from adult human tissues that have the ability to proliferate in vitro and maintain their multipotency, making them attractive cell sources for regenerative medicine. However, MSCs reportedly show limited proliferative capacity with inconsistent therapeutic outcomes due to their heterogeneous nature. On the other hand, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) have emerged as an alternative source for the production of various specialized cell types via their ability to differentiate from all three primary germ layers, leading to applications in regenerative medicine, disease modeling, and drug therapy. Notably, iPSCs can differentiate into MSCs in monolayer, commonly referred to as induced mesenchymal stem cells (iMSCs). These cells show superior therapeutic qualities compared with adult MSCs as the applications of the latter are restricted by passage number and autoimmune rejection when applied in tissue regeneration trials. Furthermore, increasing evidence shows that the therapeutic properties of stem cells are a consequence of the paracrine effects mediated by their secretome such as from exosomes, a type of extracellular vesicle secreted by most cell types. Several studies that investigated the potential of exosomes in regenerative medicine and therapy have revealed promising results. Therefore, this review focuses on the recent findings of exosomes secreted from iMSCs as a potential noncell-based therapy.


Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)


General Medicine

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