Safety and efficacy associated with single-fraction high-dose-rate brachytherapy in localized prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis


Zeng Hong,Dai Jindong,Cao Dehong,Wang Minghao,Zhao Jinge,Zeng Yuhao,Xu Nanwei,Xie Yandong,Liu Haolin,Zeng Hao,Sun Guangxi,Shen PengfeiORCID


Abstract Objective Although single-fraction high-dose-rate brachytherapy (SFHDR) for localized prostate cancer has been tried in clinical trials, relevant medical evidence is currently lacking. It is necessary to systematically analyze the safety and efficacy of SFHDR. Methods Comprehensive and systematic searches for eligible studies were performed in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases. The primary endpoints included safety and efficacy, represented by toxic effects and biochemical recurrence-free survival (bRFS), respectively. The proportion rates were used as the effect measure for each study and were presented with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) and related 95% prediction interval (PI). Restricted maximum-likelihood estimator (REML) and the Hartung–Knapp method were used in the meta-analysis. Results Twenty-five studies met the inclusion criteria for quantitative analysis, including 1440 patients. The median age of patients was 66.9 years old (62–73 years old) and the median follow-up was 47.5 months (12–75 months). The estimates of cumulative occurrence for severe gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxic effects were 0.1% (95% CI 0–0.2%) and 0.4% (95% CI 0–1.2%), and for grade 2 toxic effects were 1.6% (95% CI 0.1–4.7%) and 17.1% (95% CI 5.4–33.5%), respectively. The estimate of 3‑year bRFS was 87.5% (95% CI 84.4–90.3%) and 71.0% (95% CI 63.0–78.3%) for 5‑year bRFS. The pooled bRFS rates for low-risk patients were 99.0% (95% CI 85.2–100.0%) at 3 years and 80.9% (95% CI 75.4–85.9%) at 5 years, and the risk group was found to be statistically correlated with bRFS (3-year bRFS, P < 0.01; 5‑year bRFS, P = 0.04). Conclusion SFHDR is associated with favorable tolerability and suboptimal clinical benefit in patients with localized prostate cancer. Ongoing and planned high-quality prospective studies are necessary to verify its safety and efficacy.


Innovative Research Group Project of the National Natural Science Foundation of China

Postdoctoral Research Foundation of China

West China Hospital, Sichuan University


Springer Science and Business Media LLC


Oncology,Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and imaging







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